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Geomorphic Process, Endogenic and Exogenous forces , Differences


Geomorphic Process: 

                                                                      We found many changes in the Earth's crust from the beginning of the earth due to many physical and chemical processes on the earth's surface. These processes are called geomorphic processes.

What it means: 

                         Greek 'Geo' means Earth and 'morpho' means Form, altogether it means the formation of relief features on the earth's crust. 


  • Endogenetic/Endogenic Process :

                                    The English word 'Endogenetic' comes from a Greek word 'Endon' means interior or inner and 'Genesis' means origin. 

  •  Definition These forces are coming from the interior of the earth, can work suddenly or slowly and produces movement of earth's crust that causes upliftment and subsidence of land called endogenetic process.
  • Characteristics:

         1. The agents of this process are volcanic activity, Earthquakes etc.

          2. It produces 1st order and 2nd order landforms.

          3. Landforms changes are seen locally or regionally. 

           4. They are acting through processes like Plate tectonic, upliftment current of magma, isostasy, stress and strain on crust, horizontal and vertical movement of landforms.

          5. It is a landforms constructive process.

  • Exogenous Process:

                            The English word Exogenous comes from the Greek word 'Exo' means External and 'Genesis' means Origin.

                              In this process landforms on the earth, the surface is shaping and reshaping due to acts of external force.

  • Definition:    When landforms changes occur by the physical and chemical process of static external forces like sunrays, temperature, wind pressure, humidity, cloud covers, rainfall etc. and dynamic external forces like river, wind, glacier, waves, etc. altogether called exogenous process. 
  • Characteristics:

 1. This process can act all over the world.

2. It is a very slow process. (exception-Subsidence in mass wasting) 

3. It produces 2nd and 3rd order landforms.

4. They act through processes like weathering, erosion, mass wasting, denudation etc. those graded the landforms.

5. It is a landform changing process. It wears down high land and deposits eroded materials on the low lands,

6. It can transform land with aggradation and degradation into small scale landforms.

  • Difference between Exogenous and Endogenous or  Endogenetic processes:


Exogenous    process

Endogenic/ Endogenetic       process  


This process can construct new landforms

This process can transform the land   into  a small                dimension

Source of power

Landforms generally originate due to the convective current of hot magma in   the asthenosphere and chemical reactions

Landforms     transform due to the  act of  climatic elements like river, glacier, sea waves, groundwater erosional works

Work of influence

This process can influence the landforms locally    or regionally

This process can influence all over the world

Speed and Time

It is a slow or sudden process

It is a very slow   process

Process through

Volcanism, Earthquake, Isostasy, Orogenic and Epeirogenic movements

Aggradation, Degradation, Biotic process are                  categorized

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