Responsive Advertisement

Effects of Solar Flare and Geomagnetic Storms on the Earth's atmosphere, humans and technology

Effects of Solar Frare and Geomagnetic Storms: 

Our cosmos is full of natural events. I try to explain how solar flares, solar storms and solar wind affects our lives on the earth's surface. Before that, we have to know what they are.      

Solar Flare: Sun emits intense bursts of radiation (X rays) and magnetic energy through solar flares. A solar flare occurs when magnetic energy that has built up in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released. Soler flare comes out from the Corona (outermost layer). Inside the flare temperature nearly 10 to 20 million Kelvin. These flares occur near the equator of the sun where generally sunspots are found. Flares are generally seen as flashes of lights on corona from the sun-facing earth. 
How solar Flare occurs: Solar flare occurs where the Sunspot is located. Sunspot is relatively less brightened areas of the sun. However, the temperature of the Sunspot is near about 6500° Ferenhight. Sunspot occurs when magnetic fields are strong and magnetic fields are so strong that they restrict some of the heat within the sun to reach the surface but The magnetic field lines near Sunspots often cross, tangle and reorganize.(magnetic reconection occurs) Magnetic field release energy  when they snap. As a result sudden explosion of energy and radiation is released into space called a solar flare.
According strength solar flare can be divided in following class; i) X ii) M iii) C iv) B iv) A. Among them X class solar flare is very biggest.The Scale is gradually decreses according to their strength as X, M , C, B and A. However A class is negligible or very smallest. The Scale follows the mesuring technics of Richter scale of earth quake ie each letter (grade) 10 times increase in energy output.So an X releases 10 time higher energy a M and 100 times a C. Each class letter goes up to 1 to 9 times except X class goes beyond 9 times. X class flares are larger explosions on the sun. 
Effects of solar flare as same as Geomagnetic storms.

Solar Wind: The Sun radiates continuous streams of charged particles mostly electrons and protons this is known as the solar wind.          

CMEs:  The sun's outer surface releases huge streams of charged plasma at millions of miles per hour speed which are called the Coronal Mass Ejection (CMEs). CMEs are mainly high electric eruptions from the sun's Corona which are giant bubbles of gas and magnetic flux released from the sun and it is billion tons of charged particles travelling at high speeds that can reach different directions.     

Solar Flare and Coronal Mass Ejection

 Solar Storm: This kind of phenomenon affects the outer atmosphere very badly known as the Solar storm. A powerful solar storm rushed toward earth at the speed of 1.5 million kilometres per hour. The charged particles of solar wind and EMCs hit the earth's magnetic field. CMEs and Solar wind press the earth's magnetic field from the dayside this tension is known as Magnetic reconnection. Soler flare and CMEs can occur separately or in the same incident.                                                                           

 Geomagnetic storm: Incoming charged particles get deflected around the earth's magnetic field so the earth's magnetic field behaves like a shield for us and others interact with the earth's magnetic field and rattle the magnetosphere. The collusion between the solar wind shock waves and the earth's magnetic field in the magnetosphere is called a geometric storm. However solar storms and geomagnetic storms are almost the same but the only difference is geomagnetic storms affect the earth's outer atmosphere ie the magnetosphere and the ionosphere.  

According to the NOAA (National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration) Geomagneticstorm scale goes from minor to extreme and is classified as the following; i) G1-Minor ii) G2-Moderate iii) G3- Strong iv) G4- Severe v) G5- Extreme. The G5 category is extreme. Effects of G5 is voltage control problems and protective system problems in large areas, blackouts of electricity grid system, problems to handle tracking or navigation system through sattelites, many electronic device collapsed, low frequency radio system disrupted, sattelite system becomes in blackout mode for several days.

Bow Shock - The magnetosphere is the outermost layer of the earth's atmosphere (controlled by the earth's magnetic field) and its shape is controlled by blasted solar wind and supersonic shockwaves on the sun-facing region of the earth called Bow Shock.                                                          

Magnetoshearth - It is located in between Magnetopause (the outermost region of the Magnetosphere) and the Bow shock.                                                                                                           

Plasmasphere- It is an inner magnetosphere region with low energy or cooler plasma.                        

Effects of Geomagnetic Storm- i) It can damage the electronics in the satellites in consequence it damages the radio communication network of the earth and GPS signals. ii) It disrupts the electricity Grid system. iii) It can damage the space crafts and space stations of the earth by impairing electrical functions. Example: Largest Geomagnetic storm recorded in 1859 which is occurred by CMEs also known as the Carrington storm. Very recent SpaceX's newest 40 to 49 satellites are moving out its orbit after being thrust with CMEs in February 2022.                                                                                         

Aurora: This phenomenon is causing currents of charged particles within the earth's magnetic field travails toward both poles. As the particles interact with the different gases found in our planet's outer atmosphere, like oxygen and nitrogen, atoms are excited by the interaction and emit lights creating Auroras in the poles. In the northern hemisphere, it is called Aurora Borealis or northern light and southern.      

Solar wind-Bow Shock-Cusps 

 Effects of Geometric Storm on humans: i) Cusp region- It is an earth's window to outer space. A kind of funnel-shaped area on the dayside in the magnetopause with a near-zero magnetic field where effects of geometric Strom are very high. It is generally located in high latitudes (70° or near poles)of the earth.  In these areas morbidity of humans due to solar wave hazards was seen however it is not confirmed completely but effects are definitely there. Anamoly in soler wavelength (high and low frequency)  also affects the human life span in the polar regions. ii) Soler storm emits radiation when travellers are in the plane and rockets exposure to it is harmful and causes organ damage, radiation sickness cardiovascular diseases and cancer. 

The first time in history NASA touches the sun with the help of the Parker Solar Probe (which was launched in 1918) is announced by NASA on December 14,2022. Parker Solar Probe has now flown through the sun's upper atmosphere known as the corona. Parker observed the solar wind and flow of particles within the solar wind and in 1919 Parker discovered the magnetic zig-zag structures in the solar wind called switchbacks. The sun is not solid or the sun's surface is not solid like earth but Sun has a superheated atmosphere which is made by sun particles bounded by the sun's gravity magnetic forces. As the rising heat and pressure push that material away from the sun after covering some distance (approx 10-20 solar radii or 4.3 to 8.6 million miles) when forces ( gravity and magnetism) minimise or drop that particular zone known as  Alfven critical surface which is the end of the solar atmosphere, beyond this zone when solar materials with energy cross this zone forms solar wind which blows towards every direction. After crossing the Alfven critical surface, the solar wind moves so fast that waves within solar wind can not move so fast and waves within the wind cannot ever travel fast enough to make it back to the sun severing their connection. 

Post a Comment